Configuration and hooks


There are a number of situations where snapd needs to notify a snap that something has happened. For example, when a snap is upgraded, it may need to run some sort of migration on the previous version's data in order to make it consumable by the new version. Or when an interface is connected or disconnected, the snap might need to obtain attributes specific to that connection. These types of situations are handled by hooks.

General usage

A hook is defined as an executable contained within the meta/hooks/ directory inside the snap. The file name of the executable is the name of the hook (e.g. the upgrade hook executable would be meta/hooks/upgrade).

As long as the file name of the executable corresponds to a supported hook name, that's all one needs to do in order to utilize a hook within their snap. Note that hooks, like apps, are executed within a confined environment. By default hooks will run with no plugs; if a hook needs more privileges one can use the top-level attribute hooks in snap.yaml to request plugs, like so:

hooks: # Top-level YAML attribute, parallel to `apps`
    upgrade: # Hook name, corresponds to executable name
        plugs: [network] # Or any other plugs required by this hook

Note that hooks will be called with no parameters. If they need more information from snapd (or need to provide information to snapd) they can utilize the snapctl command (for more information on snapctl, see snapctl -h).

Supported Hooks

Note: The development of specific hooks is ongoing.


The configure hook is called upon initial install, upgrade, and whenever the user requests a configuration change via the snap set command. The hook should use snapctl get to retrieve the requested configuration from snapd, and act upon it. If it exits non-zero, the configuration will not be applied.

configure example

Say the user runs:

$ snap set <snapname> username=foo password=bar

The configure hook would be located within the snap at meta/hooks/configure. An example of what it might contain is:


if ! username=$(snapctl get username); then
    echo "Username is required"
    exit 1

if ! password=$(snapctl get password); then
    echo "Password is required"
    exit 1

# Handle username and password, perhaps write to a credential file of some sort.
echo "user=$username" > $SNAP_DATA/credentials
echo "password=$password" >> $SNAP_DATA/credentials
chmod 600 $SNAP_DATA/credentials

prepare-device (gadget snap specific)

The optional prepare-device hook will be called on the gadget if present at the start of the device initialization process, once the device has first booted and the gadget snap has been installed. The hook will also be called if this process is retried later from scratch in case of initialization failures.

The device initialization process is for example responsible of setting the serial identification of the device through an exchange with a device service. The prepare-device hook can for example redirect this exchange and dynamically set options relevant to it.

prepare-device example


# optionally set the url of the service
snapctl set device-service.url="https://device-service"
# set optional extra HTTP headers for requests to the service
snapctl set device-service.headers='{"token": "TOKEN"}'

# set an optional proposed serial identifier, depending on the service
# this can end up being ignored;
# this might need to be obtained dynamically
snapctl set registration.proposed-serial="DEVICE-SERIAL"

# optionally pass details of the device as the body of registration request,
# the body is text, typically YAML;
# this might need to be obtained dynamically
snapctl set registration.body='mac: "00:00:00:00:ff:00"'